- An Affordable Luxury -
By Naeem A Syed
Processing is considered a Traditional job and
the methodology involved differs from country
to country. The process depends upon mainly
the experience, and the available resources
to treat the skin and making it utilize in a
day-to-day life style.
Leather is used from the Stone Age in all countries
for various purposes such as clothing, bed spreads,
floor spreads for comfortable sitting, to draw
water from wells and to fetch water from distant
places. Hence, the process differs from place
to place, people to people, who were involved
in hunting, chopping and de-skinning the animals.
since, man found alternatives to his clothing
needs, the animal skin found its way to various
other utilities such as garments of various
designs, shapes and sizes, bags, pouches and
wallets, footwear, saddles and belts, etc.
the skin after stripped off the slaughtered
animal, finds its way in the market as processed
leather within 3 weeks. During this tedious
period, the leather undergoes various methods
of treatment, right from salting for preserving
the raw skin for the period of stacking and
transportation to Leather Tanneries. Then, so
collected raw skins are soaked in tanks of lime
for a few days. This process swells and softens
the skins to make easy removal of hair. Hair
is shaved-removed after de-liming. From this
stage onwards the skin is called leather. This
leather under process has to be again undergo
re-liming, bating, soaking in drums. For this
process chemicals and tanning agents such as
chromium, softening agents such as fat liquor
etc. are used.
Industries use large drums made of Teak wood
(Sagwan), rotatable by electric motors for such
tanning, softening and coloring process of the
leather. The leather processed by these methods
then put on hangars in a shaded place to get
dried. The dried leather passes through various
shaving, splitting, stretching, and polishing
process till it become fully soft to the required
level, color, and thickness.
the processed leather is measured in Square
Feet (SqFt) and DeciMetres (DCM). To have an
accurate measurement, the leather is placed
flat, fully stretched over the conveyor body
of a measuring machine and passed through a
controlled unit which electronically displays
the measurement of the leather.
is processed to the required softness. Every
item of leather demands its own level of softness.
Softness of the leather differs from product
to product such as Leather Shoe Soles, Leather
Saddles and Leather Cycle Seats, Leather belts
for industrial, animal and human use, Footwear,
Shoes, Sandals and Chappals, Leather Boxes,
Bowls and Luggage Bags, Leather pouches, wallets
and Ladies Hand Bags, Leather cases for several
industrial instruments, gift items. All these
Leather articles demand different level of softness.
is called by various names during its process.
The Leather Terminology used in and around Ambur
- Skin - From small animals such as
goat, lamb, sheep, deer, dog, hare,
- Hide - From a large animals such as Cow,
- Raw - Stripped animal skin with hair
- Salty Or Namkeen - Salted to stake
for Transportation to Tanneries
- Limed & Pickled - Under preliminary
process after arrival in the Tannery
- Chrome Tanned - Processed (tanned)
with chromium chemical
- Wet Blue - Chrome-tanned leather
in wet and swollen condition
- Pelt - Leather skin or Hide after
removal of hair.
- Kid - Processed leather of small
lambs and goats
- Side - one half of the full leather,
generally divided vertically
- Split - The second
and third layer of Cows leather or Buffalos
sliced with the help of a splitting
Naeem Syed is the Founder And CEO of Shaadmaani.Com & AmburNet.Com. A Social Worker And Responsible Citizen of India, Naeem Syed has a couple of Websites for the benefit of Citizens of this world. He writes on Social Issues and Cultures. Naeem Syed may be contacted at http://www.Shaadmaani.Com & http://www.AmburNet.Com
Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Naeem_A_Syed
The following Leather processes
involved in the Modern Leather Industries are
A method for preparing leather
using a protease and a method for treating wastes
derived from leather processing using the same,
which are advantageous in terms of preparation
of leather of excellent quality, decreased waste
production by reducing the amount of chemicals,
and treatment or recycling of wastes in an environmentally
friendly manner. The protease HY-3 produced
from Aranicola proteolyticus HY-3 strain is
added to the steps of soaking, liming, deliming
and bating, among leather processing, and thus
the leather is prepared. Additionally, the protease
HY-3 is added to wastewater and solid wastes
generated during the soaking and liming steps,
and solid wastes generated during the liming,
deliming, bating and finishing steps, so that
the wastes are treated.
A processing method of a leather
material having grains thereon is disclosed.
The processing method of the leather material
includes: the first step of sammying a tanned
leather material by hand; the second step of
moistening the leather material; and third step
of partially heating the leather material from
the back to create grains thereon. The leather
material may be folded at the position where
the grains are created so that a relatively
large convexity is formed. The invention also
discloses a leather material thus processed
as well as a leather product produced by using
the leather material thus processed.
research recently posted to ES&T's Research
ASAP website (es048770o), scientists from India's
Central Leather Research Institute (CLRI), the
largest institution of its kind in the world,
describe an important step forward in reducing
the water pollution from leather processing.
Because the technology is green and has potential
to increase the leather's economic value, experts
believe it has real promise
Central Leather Research Institute's new technology
for dehairing hides results in larger pieces
Typically, sodium sulfide and lime are used
to remove hair from cowhides in the production
of leather. The hair is completely degraded
by the process, but a sludge is left behind,
says Dennis Shelly, the director of the Leather
Research Institute at Texas Tech University.
This protein-rich sludge is the top pollution
problem of the industry and is a much bigger
concern than wastes that contain the chromium
used in leather tanning, he says.
"From a waste-loading perspective, the
dehairing issue is a larger magnitude,"
explains Gary Sayler, director of the University
of Tennessee at Knoxville's Center for Environmental
Biotechnology. "You must remember that
many of the very active countries in tanning
are developing countries with much more limited
capacity for treatment, let alone advanced waste
CLRI's new enzyme-based technology preserves
the hair, and this should significantly decrease
the environmental impact of leather processing,
Shelly says. "If you can save the hair
without dissolving it, you will reduce the [chemical]
oxygen demand of the waste stream. And that's
moving in the right direction," Shelly
explains. CLRI says that the process, which
uses the commercially available enzyme Biodart,
reduces the chemical oxygen demand of the resulting
wastewater by 53% and total solids by 26%.
"Solid waste management [is] the need of
the hour in the tanning industry," says
Md. Rafiq, director of KKSK Leather Processors
Ltd., an Indian firm that has been field-testing
CLRI's new technology and deems it promising.
"Ever since the [Indian] Supreme Court
ordered the closure of more than 500 tanneries
in and around Tamil Nadu [in 1996], the tanners
in India are really looking for 'greener' leather
processing," says Jonnalagadda Raghava
Rao, the paper's corresponding author. "Development
and commercialization of clean and green leather
processing is a major thrust of our group, as
well as [the] institute's top priority,"
he adds. Only China's leather industry is larger
than India's, Shelly says. He estimates that
the leather industry is worth at least $1 trillion
The new technology helps sidestep some of what
Rao calls "do-undo" approaches in
leather processing. For example, the conventional
approach uses lime to swell hides, then removes
the compound to reduce the swelling. CLRI's
new enzymatic technology avoids this step. Moreover,
it can be coupled with an enzyme-based fiber-opening
step so that the process "completely avoids
'undoing' steps," Rao says. KKSK Leather
Processors is also testing this enzyme-based
CRLI's new dehairing process also uses significantly
less production water-"practically none,"
Sayler notes. "I believe this is an approach
that can be used many places where bulk production
proteases are available. These enzymes are cheap
and easy to make and are very stable,"
he says. For all of these reasons, that technology
"will be easier to put in place than chromium
alternatives," he says.
The hair preserved by the new process can be
used in the manufacture of brushes, rugs, and
carpets, as well as in biocomposting, shampoos,
animal feeds, and natural sunscreens, Rao says.
Shelly adds that CLRI has also patented a technique
for using the keratin from the hair in the tanning
An important side benefit of the enzymatic dehairing
process is that it leaves more product, increasing
the area of the leather by 8% compared with
conventional processes, according to Rao. He
estimates that tanners could get the equivalent
of about U.S.$265 for each metric ton of raw
hides they process. An increase of 8% is significant,
Shelly agrees. The technology is also likely
to be marketable because a growing number of
automotive and furniture manufacturers, particularly
in Europe, are demanding that leathers be produced
using the greenest possible technologies, he
says. "There are companies, like Mercedes,
that require a nonchrome tanned leather,"
he points out.
CLRI is also actively investigating alternatives
to the chromium used in conventional tanning,
Rao says. The institute has developed a method
based on vegetable tanning.